Chemistry | Bones, Muscles | Brain and Behavior | Digestion | Blood & Body
Bones, Muscles and Movement
An exoskeleton covers the outside of the body and
supports the body on the inside. An endoskeleton is a rigid framework located
inside the body. Humans have endoskeletons.
1. Know the difference between exoskeletons and endoskeletons.
What type of skeleton do humans have?
2. List three functions of the skeletal system.
The skeletal system
- supports the body and its organs
- protects the body and its organs
- provides flexibility to the human body by using muscles and joints
attached to the bones.
3. Is a bone a living tissue? Explain why or why not.
Yes, bones are a solid network of living cells, fibers, and calcium salts.
If they were not living, bones would soften and fall apart.
4. Describe the structure and development of bone.
Structure: Bones are a solid network of living cells and fibers. Each bone
is surrounded by a tough membrane called the periosteum. Inside the bones are
cavities that have soft tissue called bone marrow.
Development: Bones are formed when cartilage (soft tissue) is changed
into harder tissue during the process of bone formation (called ossification).
5. Identify the following parts of the skeletal system:
Carpals, clavicle (collar bone), cranium femur, fibula, humerus, mandible,
maxillary bones, metacarpals, metatarsals, patella, phalanges, radius, ribs,
scapula (shoulder blade), coccyx (tail bone), sternum (breast bone), tarsals,
tibia, ulna, and vertebrae.
6. What is a joint?
A joint is a connection where two bones come together.
7. List the three types of joints found between bones.
- Immovable joints
- Slightly movable joints
- Freely movable joints
8. Name and describe six types of freely movable joints. Be able to
locate an example of each of these in your body.
- Ball and socket joint (can rotate around in any direction) shoulder
joint, hip joint.
- Hinge joint (allows a back and forth motion in one direction like a
hinge on a door) Elbow, knee
- Pivot joint (allows rotation of one bone around another) it rotates
like a swivel chair) First two neck vertebrae (in the back)
- Saddle joint (permits movement in two directions both movements can
occur at the same time) Base of thumb.
- Gliding joint (permits sliding motion of one bone over another)
Carpals and metacarpals
- Ellipsoid (it is like a hinge joint that can move in 2 different
directions) Base of fingers.
9. Be creative and construct a model one of the six freely movable
Construction must resemble the joint chosen and must be able to move.
- Two pieces of cardboard taped together illustrates a hinge joint.
- A tennis ball set inside a cup illustrates a ball and socket joint.
- Two empty toilet paper rolls and two pencils can be used to make a
hinge joint. One roll is cut length ways in half, the other roll can be
set inside the cut one and pencil can be glued to each roll to mimic the
- Cut 1 inch off of a toilet paper roll and then cut it in half. These
two u-shaped pieces can then be place inside of each other to make a
saddle joint. Pencils can be glued to the outer faces of the u-shaped
joints to simulate bones.
10. What is another name for a broken bone? List 3 types of breaks
that can occur in bones. Describe how bones heal and how doctors can help this
- Open When the fractured bone is sticking out of the wound.
- Closed When the fractured bone is not visible.
- Incomplete When the fractured bone is not visible.
- Complete When the fracture is when the bone is completely broken all
the way through.
- Broken bones will grow back together (remember that
bones are made of living cells) when the broken ends are aligned. Doctors
are able to align the bones and keep them aligned by applying a cast of
splint. Sometimes bones need to be held together with steel plates and
11. What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bone due to the loss of calcium and
other minerals. This can be caused from: lack of exercise, to much protein in
the diet, caffeine, soft drinks that are high in phosphates, high fat diet,
alcohol, and antacids.
Who can get it?
Anyone can get it but it is more common in females and in people over 50
(25% of all white females in the US will develop osteoporosis).
List at least 5 health habits that deal with maintaining healthy bones and
Exercise, good posture, good eating habits (see above in #11), using
safety precautions (wearing a helmet when needed, seat belt when driving), and
refraining from physical fighting/violence will all help maintain healthy
12. What is the function of the muscular system?
The function of the muscular system is to make the skeletal system move
which ultimately moves the body. Since both ends of a muscle are usually
attached two different bones, when a muscle contracts it pulls the two bones
closer together. The joint between the two bones allows the movement to occur.
13. Name and describe three types of muscle tissue. Give one example
- Skeletal muscles Generally attached to bones and are at work every
time we lift a finger, wink an eye, chew something, or stand up.
- Smooth muscles Usually not under voluntary control and contract in all
directions, for example, the wall of the stomach and the wall of blood
- Cardiac muscles They are only found in the heart, they are not under
voluntary control and they and they are branched so that they contract in
14. Be able to identify the following muscles on your body:
Masseter, Trapezius, Deltoid, Pectoralis, Biceps, Abdominal, Quadriceps,
Triceps, Latissimus dorsi , Gluteus maximus, Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius, and
15. Describe the process that causes a muscle to contract.
Signal from the brain cause calcium to enter the muscle. When this happens
energy in the form of ATP, is used to shorten the muscle which pulls the ends
16. Describe the difference between voluntary and involuntary
Muscles you can control are called voluntary muscles (legs, arms).
Involuntary muscles are automatically controlled by your brain (stomach and
17. Using your model in #9, show how muscles, bones, and joints work
together to produce movement.
18. Find 3 texts in the Bible that mentions bones and/or muscles.
Tell about each one in your own words.
Answers will vary. Some example key words are: bones and