Answers - Bones

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Bible Bowl Info

Chemistry | Bones, Muscles | Brain and Behavior | Digestion | Blood & Body

Bones, Muscles and Movement

1.  Know the difference between exoskeletons and endoskeletons.
What type of skeleton do humans have?
An exoskeleton covers the outside of the body and supports the body on the inside. An endoskeleton is a rigid framework located inside the body. Humans have endoskeletons.

2.  List three functions of the skeletal system.

The skeletal system

    1. supports the body and it’s organs
    2. protects the body and it’s organs
    3. provides flexibility to the human body by using muscles and joints attached to the bones.

3.  Is a bone a living tissue? Explain why or why not.
Yes, bones are a solid network of living cells, fibers, and calcium salts.
If they were not living, bones would soften and fall apart.

4.  Describe the structure and development of bone.
: Bones are a solid network of living cells and fibers. Each bone is surrounded by a tough membrane called the periosteum. Inside the bones are cavities that have soft tissue called bone marrow.

Development: Bones are formed when cartilage (soft tissue) is changed into harder tissue during the process of bone formation (called ossification).

5.  Identify the following parts of the skeletal system:

Carpals, clavicle (collar bone), cranium femur, fibula, humerus, mandible, maxillary bones, metacarpals, metatarsals, patella, phalanges, radius, ribs, scapula (shoulder blade), coccyx (tail bone), sternum (breast bone), tarsals, tibia, ulna, and vertebrae.

6.  What is a joint?
A joint is a connection where two bones come together.

7.  List the three types of joints found between bones.

  1. Immovable joints
  2. Slightly movable joints
  3. Freely movable joints

8.  Name and describe six types of freely movable joints. Be able to locate an example of each of these in your body.

  1. Ball and socket joint – (can rotate around in any direction) – shoulder joint, hip joint.
  2. Hinge joint – (allows a back and forth motion in one direction – like a hinge on a door) – Elbow, knee
  3. Pivot joint – (allows rotation of one bone around another) it rotates like a swivel chair) – First two neck vertebrae (in the back)
  4. Saddle joint – (permits movement in two directions – both movements can occur at the same time) – Base of thumb.
  5. Gliding joint – (permits sliding motion of one bone over another) – Carpals and metacarpals
  6. Ellipsoid – (it is like a hinge joint that can move in 2 different directions) Base of fingers.

9.  Be creative and construct a model one of the six freely movable joints.
Construction must resemble the joint chosen and must be able to move.


    1. Two pieces of cardboard taped together illustrates a hinge joint.
    2. A tennis ball set inside a cup illustrates a ball and socket joint.
    3. Two empty toilet paper rolls and two pencils can be used to make a hinge joint. One roll is cut length ways in half, the other roll can be set inside the cut one and pencil can be glued to each roll to mimic the bones.
    4. Cut 1 inch off of a toilet paper roll and then cut it in half. These two u-shaped pieces can then be place inside of each other to make a saddle joint. Pencils can be glued to the outer faces of the u-shaped joints to simulate bones.

10.  What is another name for a broken bone? List 3 types of breaks that can occur in bones. Describe how bones heal and how doctors can help this process.

    1. Open – When the fractured bone is sticking out of the wound.
    2. Closed – When the fractured bone is not visible.
    3. Incomplete – When the fractured bone is not visible.
    4. Complete – When the fracture is when the bone is completely broken all the way through.
    5. Broken bones will grow back together (remember that bones are made of living cells) when the broken ends are aligned. Doctors are able to align the bones and keep them aligned by applying a cast of splint. Sometimes bones need to be held together with steel plates and screws.

11.  What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bone due to the loss of calcium and other minerals. This can be caused from: lack of exercise, to much protein in the diet, caffeine, soft drinks that are high in phosphates, high fat diet, alcohol, and antacids.

Who can get it?
Anyone can get it but it is more common in females and in people over 50 (25% of all white females in the US will develop osteoporosis).

List at least 5 health habits that deal with maintaining healthy bones and muscles.
Exercise, good posture, good eating habits (see above in #11), using safety precautions (wearing a helmet when needed, seat belt when driving), and refraining from physical fighting/violence will all help maintain healthy bones.

12.  What is the function of the muscular system?
The function of the muscular system is to make the skeletal system move which ultimately moves the body. Since both ends of a muscle are usually attached two different bones, when a muscle contracts it pulls the two bones closer together. The joint between the two bones allows the movement to occur.

13.  Name and describe three types of muscle tissue. Give one example of each.

  1. Skeletal muscles – Generally attached to bones and are at work every time we lift a finger, wink an eye, chew something, or stand up.
  2. Smooth muscles – Usually not under voluntary control and contract in all directions, for example, the wall of the stomach and the wall of blood vessels.
  3. Cardiac muscles – They are only found in the heart, they are not under voluntary control and they and they are branched so that they contract in all directions.

14.  Be able to identify the following muscles on your body:
Masseter, Trapezius, Deltoid, Pectoralis, Biceps, Abdominal, Quadriceps, Triceps, Latissimus dorsi , Gluteus maximus, Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius, and Soleus.

15.  Describe the process that causes a muscle to contract.
Signal from the brain cause calcium to enter the muscle. When this happens energy in the form of ATP, is used to shorten the muscle which pulls the ends closer together.

16.  Describe the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles.
Muscles you can control are called voluntary muscles (legs, arms). Involuntary muscles are automatically controlled by your brain (stomach and heart).

17. Using your model in #9, show how muscles, bones, and joints work together to produce movement.

18.  Find 3 texts in the Bible that mentions bones and/or muscles. Tell about each one in your own words.

Answers will vary. Some example key words are: bones and flesh.

Karen Reed
Copyright © 2000-2010, Karen Reed. All rights reserved.